GREEK MEDITERANEAN TIMELINE

YEAR

BC unless otherwise stated

WEST

Mediteranean & Western Europe

CENTRAL

Mediteranean

EAST

Mediteranean & Greek Orient

 

561
   
550
   
Cyrus the Great becomes king of Persia.
550
   
546
 
546
 
546
 
Aspendos falls to Persia.
539
   
538
   
529
   
Cyrus the Great dies.
522
 
Samos freed from its tyrant rulers with the help of Sparta.
 
514
 
Athenians overthrow tyrant rulers.
 
510
   
500
   
499
 
Militos rebels against Persia.
495
   
494
 
Militos defeated by Persia and city is destroyed.
492
 
490
 
Athens defeats Persia at Marathon.
485
    Xerxes becomes King of Persia.
484
  Athens builds fleet of 100 triremes to war against Aegina.  
480
 
Athens defeats Persia at Salamis.
478
 
Cimon chosen to drive Persia from Greek cities. Athens requires allies to pay 460 talents per year to support effort. 
 
476
 
Katana captured by Herion I of Syracuse.
 
475
  Cimon takes Chersonese.  
473
Tarentum establishes democratic government.
   
468
 
Cimon defeats Persian fleet at battle of Eurymedon at Aspendos. Athens captures 200 ships.
467
  Naxos rebels against Athens.  
466
 
Athens frees (takes) Thace from Persians.
 
465
   
464
  Sparta devastated by earthquake.  
463
 
Athens defeats Thasos and destroys their fleet. Threatens Macedonian and has Alexander I overthrown.
 
462
 
Athenians revolt against government and select Perikles. Beginning of Athens' Golden age under Perikles. Tribute from allies raised to 600 talents.
 
461
  Cimon exiled for 10 years.  
459
   
457
  Sparta invades Tanagra.  
453
  Perikles sends fleet to attack Peloponnessos coast and battles with Sicyon.  
449
Cimon returns from exile and attacks Cyprus.  
449
  Perikles besieges Samos.  
449
   
448
  Sparta forces Phocians from Delphi and returns oracle to Delphian control, but after Spartans leave Athens declares holy war and returns Delphi to Phocians.  
448
  Athens colonizes Naxos.  
448
  Athens colonizes Chersonese.  
447
  Athens calls meeting of Greek cities, but Sparta refuses and meeting fails.  
446
  Euboea revolts against Athens.  
440
  Perikles leads expedition to Samos.  
433
   
431
 
Start of Peloponnessian war between Athens and Sparta. Sparta sets up military camp in Attica.
 
431
 
Aeginetans ordered to leave island and replaced by Athenian colonist.
 
430
  Plague in besieged Athens.  
429
  Perikles dies from plague. Tribute from Athens' allies raised to 1300 talents.  
427
  Athens captures Minoa.  
425
  Athens captures Corinth.  
424
  Athens captures Cythera, Thyrea, Nisaea, and ravages Peloponnessian coast.  
418
  Several Peloponnessian cities rebel against Sparta and side with Athens.  
417
  Argos rebels against Athens and sides with Sparta.  
416
  Melos rebels against Athens and is totally destroyed as a warning - angers Greek states.   
415
   
415
Athens attacks Italy and takes Rhegium.  
415
Athens starts campaign to take Sicily.  
413
Syracuse in Sicily utterly defeats Athens 20 Sept.
 
412
  Athens regroups fleet at Samos to start campaign to retake island states.  
411
 
Aspendos is re-taken by Persia.
410
  Cyzicus unsuccessfully rebels against Athens.  
409
  Byzantium unsuccessfully rebels against Athens.  
409
  Athens besieges Chalcedon, but Sparta takes advantage & attacks Athens - fleet recalled.   
408
   
406
  Lysander of Sparta wins sea battle against Athens at Samos.  
404
 
Lysander of Sparta defeats Athenian fleet and captures 200 ships than takes Athens September 404 ending Peloponnessian war.
 
404
 
Aeginetans return to Island.
 
403
  Athenians overthrow oligarchy set up by Sparta.  
398
  Corinth revolts against Sparta.  
396
  Persia bribes Thebes to get Greeks to rebel against Sparta.  
395
  Boetian war: Thebes and Athens join against Sparta.  
394
   
390
Rome burned by Brennus of Gaul.  City rebuilt with great Servian walls.
   
387
   
387
 
379
   
377
   
374
   
Cappadocia rebels against Persia.
374
 
Thessalian League reestablished by Jason.
 
370
 
Jason dies Thessalian league in disarray.
 
366
 
Cos is re-founded by Athens.
 
359
 
Phillip II becomes regent of Macedonia.
 
357
 
Rhodes, Cos, and Chios pull out of the Athenian Alliance.
 
356
   
356
   
356
   
354
 
Mausolos a Persian prince of Caria stations  troops on the islands of Rhodes, Cos & Chios.
353
 
Phillip II of Macedonia makes peace among the Thessalian cities.
 
344
 
Phillip II of Macedonia takes Thessaly.
 
340
 
Rhodes, Cos, and Chios freed from Persian control.
Mausolos dies. 
338
 
Phillip II of Macedonia takes over Corinth, Athens and the rest of Greece.
 
336
 
Phillip II dies and is succeeded by his son Alexander III (the Great).
 
334
  Alexander III crosses the Hellespont with 35,000 troops.
333
  Aspendos surrenders to Alexander the Great
332
 
331
  At Gaugamelia Alexader defeats Persian army. Alexander burns and loots Persepolis.
327
  Alexander III reaches Indus (India) troops refuse to go further.
326
   
323
   
323
   
321
   
Seleukid I becomes Satrap of Babylon.
321
   
Perdiccas attacks Egypt but is defeated.
320
 
Antigones takes Palestine and  Cyprus from Ptolemy I of Egypt.
316
 
Antigones takes Babylon from Seleukid I.
312
 
Seleukid I re- takes Babylon from Antigones.
312
 
Antigones signs peace treaty with Ptolemy I after losing the battle of Gaza.
306
 
Antigonos loses Corinth to Ptolemy I.
306
 
Antigonos holds Cyprus at sea battle against Ptolemy I.
305
 
305
 
Antigones besieges Rhodes for their support of Ptolemy I.
Seleukid I declares himself King and establishes Seleukid kingdom.
301
   
Selukid I extends kingdom to India.
301
 
Ptolemy I defeats Antigonos at the battle of  Ipsus and takes Palestine and lower Syria.
292
 
Antigonos' siege of Rhodes fails.  In celebration, Rhodes starts construction of Colossus of Rhodes.
 
285
   
281
   
Philetaeus becomes governor of Pergamon and fortifies the city using Alexander the Great’s treasure that he held in the city. Rebels against Selukid control and becomes founder of the Pergamon kingdom.
281
 
Seleukid I defeats Lysimachos and rules all of  Alexander’s empire except Egypt.
280
 
280
 
Colossus of Rhodes completed.
Cappadocia becomes independent of Greek rule.
272
   
264
   
256
   
Diodotos the Seleukid governor of Baktria rebels and establishes the kingdom of Baktria.
241
 
238
   
225
 
Colossus of Rhodes toppled in earthquake.
 
223
   
Antiochus III (Great) becomes king of Selukid kingdom.
219
   
216
   
212
  Antiochus III (Great) starts his campaign to recover eastern provinces of Parthia and Baktria.
212
Rome makes Sicily its first imperial province.
   
209
Rome takes Tarentum.
   
207
End 2nd Punic War, Hannibal surrenders & Carthage gives up fleet and trading concessions to Rome.
   
205
    Antiochus III (Great) returns from his successful eastern campaign (control was short lived) and takes title the "Great".
202
Masinissa becomes King of Numedia.
   
197
   
197
 
Greek cities freed from Macedonian rule.
 
197
   
190
 
Seleukids take Ephesus
190
Rome and Pergamon defeat Antiochus III of Selukid kingdom at the battle of Magnesia.
190
   
168
At Pydna Rome defeats Perseus of Macedonia.
 
168
Rome takes control of Macedonian territories.
 
167
 
Due to Rhodes lack of support of Rome against Macedonia, Rome established island of Delos as free port. Rhodes' economy collapses.
 
148
   
148
Start of 3rd Punic war when Hasdrubal of Carthage attacks Numedia - a Roman ally.
   
146
Rome destroys Corinth the last Greek city-state.
 
146
 
145
End 3rd Punic War with the destruction of Carthage.
   
140
   
133
Pergamon including Ephesus is willed to Rome by Attalus III.
129
   
126
    Tyre Phoenicia breaks away from Selukid rule.
120
 
Mithradates VI becomes king of Thace.
 
103
   
100
Julius Caesar is born.
   
89
   
88
 
86
End - Sula of Rome defeats Mithradates VI - 1st revolt.
 
81
Mithradates VI unsuccessful 2nd revolt.
 
78
 
74
Mithradates VI attempts to take Roman protectorate of Bithynia.
74
War between Pompey of Rome and Mithradates VI and his brother-in-law Tigranes of Armenia.
64
Pompey of Rome defeats Tigranes and makes Syria a Roman province.
59
   
58
   
55
   
55
51
 
50
Gaul defeated by Caesar.
   
50
Caesar crosses the Rubicon and brings his troops illegally into Rome. Starts civil war against Pompey.
 
50
Caesar chases Pompey to Egypt and helps Cleopatra to take power.
48
Mark Anthony elected Roman Consul.
 
46
Caesar re-establishes Corinth.
 
44
Caesar Assassinated.
   
30
30
17 AD 
Cappadocia becomes a Roman province.
43 AD
Britain conquered by Rome.
 
61 AD
 
69/70 AD
234 AD
   
263 AD
 
Temple of Ephesus destroyed by Goths.
 
600+ AD
   
Sasanid kingdom falls to Islamic forces.